Human Performance in ATM

Human Performance in ATM focuses on all job-related aspects at the individual, group and organisational levels that can impact upon human capability to successfully accomplish a wide variety of tasks and job requirements, including the management of related changes.

Our main goal is to match organisational objectives and staff needs to support the achievement of an effective, efficient, and safe ATM system.


Team Resource Management (TRM) aims to develop positive attitudes and behaviours towards teamwork skills and human performance in ATC helping to minimise the impact of teamwork related errors within the ATM system.


Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) is the structured assistance for a normal reaction to an abnormal event. It describes the human reaction to critical incidents - any situation faced by a controller, which causes him or her to experience unusually strong emotional reactions. All CISM activity aims to moderate the impact of Critical Incident Stress and to speed up the return to the pre-incident phase.

HF case

The Human Factors Case is a process to systematically identify and treat HF issues and benefits during an ATM project throughout its lifecycle, from concept to decommissioning..

Fatigue & Sleep Management

For shift workers like controllers, fatigue and sleep debt can be a challenge and become difficult to cope with. We have designed  booklets to provide knowledge and strategies useful to better manage sleep and perspectives on Fatigue Risk Management Systems.


The Human Error in European Air Traffic Management (HERA) is a project dedicated to the human factors perspective in incident/accident investigation, safety management and prediction of potential new forms of errors arising from new technology.

In aviation, as in any industry, statistics indicate that human error is a contributing factor of the majority of incidents and accidents. As such, Human error is seen as a potential weak link in the ATM system and, therefore, measures must be taken to prevent errors and their impact, and to maximise other human qualities such as error detection and recovery.


It is critical that HF is fully integrated into Safety Management Systems (SMS) as humans remain at the heart of the ATM system, and therefore HF is a key enabler for ATM safety. The HF in SMS project aims to support ATM safety actors when integrating HF into their daily activities.

The project has developed a training course, and is developing guidelines with methods and tools to better integrate human factors and “soft issues” into ATM SMS.


NOSS stands for Normal Operations Safety Survey. It is a method designed to capture threats to safety that arise during everyday operations, as they occur. NOSS is based on the Threat and Error Management framework.

Although NOSS is based on observing controllers in their everyday work it is not designed to assess controller performance; rather it is concerned with acquiring an overview of how the system performs.

Some links to other HF related activities in Safety in EUROCONTROL can be found at: